wahhabism a critical essay by hamid algar

18 Jan 2017 21:24 | Author: User1490066112 | Category: Resume references how many

Wahhabism ( Arabic : الوهابية ‎‎, al-Wahhābiya(h) ) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. [1] It has been variously described as "ultraconservative", [2] "austere", [3] "fundamentalist", [4] or "puritan(ical)"; [5] [6] as an Islamic "reform movement" to restore "pure monotheistic worship" ( tawhid ) by devotees; [7] and as a "deviant sectarian movement", [7] "vile sect" [8] and a distortion of Islam by its opponents. [3] [9] The term Wahhabi(ism) is often used polemically and adherents commonly reject its use, preferring to be called Salafi or muwahhid. [10] [11] [12] The movement emphasises the principle of tawhid [13] (the "uniqueness" and "unity" of God ). [14] It claims its principal influences to be Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) and Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), both belonging to the Hanbali school, [15] although the extent of their actual influence upon the tenets of the movement has been contested. [16] [17]

Wahhabism is named after an eighteenth-century preacher and activist, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792). [18] He started a reform movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Najd , [19] advocating a purging of such widespread Sunni practices as the veneration of saints , the seeking of their intercession , and the visiting of their tombs , all of which were practiced all over the Islamic world, but which he considered idolatry ( shirk ), impurities and innovations in Islam ( Bid'ah ). [20] [14] Eventually he formed a pact with a local leader Muhammad bin Saud offering political obedience and promising that protection and propagation of the Wahhabi movement mean "power and glory" and rule of "lands and men." [21]