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René Descartes > By Individual Philosopher > Philosophy

18 Jan 2017 21:24 | Author: User1492054426 | Category: Essay our education system pakistan

René Descartes ( / ˈ d eɪ ˌ k ɑːr t / ; [8] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [9] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [10] [11] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes's influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system —allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two- or three-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations)—was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry , the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the scientific revolution.

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  1. author
    User1489723330 18 Jan 2017 04:55

    This is an incorrect distinction, because Locke does not believe in hard determinism, in which we feel we are herded through life like a cow who is sent to pasture, then called in to be milked, then sent out again, etc. "Locke gave the example of a man who wakes up in a room that, unknown to him, is locked from the outside. He chooses to stay in the room, believing he has chosen freely. In reality, he has no option. However, his ignorance of this gives him an illusion of freedom." http://www.rsrevision.com/Alevel/ethics/freewill/index.htm This gives us no understanding, because the man did not know he had no choice. But it is an absurd comparison, like saying we would have the free will to walk across train tracks while a moving train is on it, if we chose to, but we choose not to while at the same time not knowing that we do not have the will to do so. But do we not the have the free will to what is free to us to do? "With one s own pleasure as the foundation of morality, it is impossible to speak of free will: Locke says that there is no liberty of choice between two different goods; the greater good imposes itself per se upon the will. There exists liberty of execution, however, in so far as the will is able not to deliberate, or not to operate after having deliberated." http://radicalacademy.com/phillocke.htm What this means is, that within the idea you have of your own best interests, you have no choice (free will) whether or not to eat the food that is good for you or the food you are allergic to that will kill you; you have no free to decide if you will walk off a cliff if your intention is to remain alive. Determinism is "The doctrine that all the facts in the physical universe, and hence also in human history, are absolutely dependent upon and conditioned by their causes. In psychology: the doctrine that the will is not free but determined by psychical or physical conditions." Ok, I get that. My psychology is such that I cannot accept to see a man beating a dog: therefore I have no choice whether or not to stop the man, if I am to live with my conscience. However, the definition then muddies my understanding of what it just said by adding: "Syn. with fatalism, necessitarianism, destiny." http://www.ditext.com/runes/d.html Locke was no fatalist, nor did he believe in a pre-determined destiny; but if we have no choice whether to act in accord with reason, then he says determinism is the rule. However, we do have the choice whether to act in accord with reason: you can jump off that cliff. You can eat that peanut. You can publicly call the President a "liar" while he is speaking to Congress. "That which you call your soul or spirit is your consciousness, and that which you call “free will” is your mind’s freedom to think or not, the only will you have, your only freedom, the choice that controls all the choices you make and determines your life and your character." Ayn Rand http://aynrandlexicon.com/lexicon/free_will.html Choosing to remain in a locked room while not knowing it is locked is an act of free will. It is when you learn the door is locked and you cannot escape that you do not have the free will to leave. But according to Rand, Mel Gibson s characterization of Braveheart, at the end of the movie where he is chained to the table while being tortured and is still able to yell "FREEDOM!" is his last act of his mind s freedom to think or not, "the only will you have." And Braveheart s action was, according to Locke, NOT free because "Locke says that there is no liberty of choice between two different goods; the greater good imposes itself per se upon the will." Could Braveheart have caved in as many lesser men would have done, thinking that the greater good for the self would be to live? Could Braveheart then have lived with himself becomes the question. Obviously, he thought not. Was he free to think not; or was there "no liberty of choice" for the man? What would Locke say about the choice between a good and a bad? Surely there there were thieves in Locke s time. Did they not have the free will to change their ways by NOT stealing? So it becomes a tricky question as to who believes in free will. I always said I believed in it. When I see it as Locke s choice between a good and a better, between Braveheart caving in or screaming one last defiant "FREEDOM!", I begin to think we do not have free will, because I always try to act in accord with reason, and choose the best over the better, or the better over the good, or the good over the bad. I could not live with myself otherwise, which means I am not free--------within the confines I have set for myself, and therein lies the key. This link compares Locke to Descartes. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/distance_arc/locke/locke-commentary1.html

  2. author
    User1487829484 18 Jan 2017 04:49

    Locke was awarded a bachelor''s degree in February 1656 and a master''s degree in June 1658. [8] He obtained a bachelor of medicine in February 1675, [9] having studied medicine extensively during his time at Oxford and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle , Thomas Willis , Robert Hooke and Richard Lower. In 1666, he met Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury , who had come to Oxford seeking treatment for a liver infection. Cooper was impressed with Locke and persuaded him to become part of his retinue.

    Locke had been looking for a career and in 1667 moved into Shaftesbury''s home at Exeter House in London, to serve as Lord Ashley''s personal physician. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Sydenham had a major effect on Locke''s natural philosophical thinking – an effect that would become evident in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

    René Descartes ( / ˈ d eɪ ˌ k ɑːr t / ; [8] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [9] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [10] [11] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

    Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism , the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy , he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends —divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. [13] In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

  3. author
    User1490564547 18 Jan 2017 06:39

    Locke was awarded a bachelor''''''''s degree in February 1656 and a master''''''''s degree in June 1658. [8] He obtained a bachelor of medicine in February 1675, [9] having studied medicine extensively during his time at Oxford and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle , Thomas Willis , Robert Hooke and Richard Lower. In 1666, he met Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury , who had come to Oxford seeking treatment for a liver infection. Cooper was impressed with Locke and persuaded him to become part of his retinue.

    Locke had been looking for a career and in 1667 moved into Shaftesbury''''''''s home at Exeter House in London, to serve as Lord Ashley''''''''s personal physician. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Sydenham had a major effect on Locke''''''''s natural philosophical thinking – an effect that would become evident in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

    René Descartes ( / ˈ d eɪ ˌ k ɑːr t / ; [8] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [9] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [10] [11] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

    Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism , the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy , he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends —divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. [13] In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God''''s act of creation.

    John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.

    Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters.

  4. author
    greenbutterfly344 17 Jan 2017 22:58

    René Descartes (1596 - 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer of the Age of Reason. He has been called the "Father of Modern Philosophy.

  5. author
    bluelion871 18 Jan 2017 00:16

    Oh hey! I remember this from 8th grade social studies! I remember John Locke said "I exist because I can doubt my own existence." And he was a philosopher who influenced people to think as him. But that s all I remember! sorry!

  6. author
    crazymouse388 18 Jan 2017 03:39

    I think your teacher wants to know what YOU would ask, not a list of strangers.

  7. author
    orangesnake814 18 Jan 2017 00:36

    Locke was awarded a bachelor''''s degree in February 1656 and a master''''s degree in June 1658. [8] He obtained a bachelor of medicine in February 1675, [9] having studied medicine extensively during his time at Oxford and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle , Thomas Willis , Robert Hooke and Richard Lower. In 1666, he met Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury , who had come to Oxford seeking treatment for a liver infection. Cooper was impressed with Locke and persuaded him to become part of his retinue.

    Locke had been looking for a career and in 1667 moved into Shaftesbury''''s home at Exeter House in London, to serve as Lord Ashley''''s personal physician. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Sydenham had a major effect on Locke''''s natural philosophical thinking – an effect that would become evident in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

    René Descartes ( / ˈ d eɪ ˌ k ɑːr t / ; [8] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [9] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [10] [11] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

    Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism , the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy , he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends —divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. [13] In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God''s act of creation.

    John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.

    Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters.