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where can i find research/articles/sources on gender pay gap/earnings disparities in usa?

18 Jan 2017 21:24 | Author: smallgoose919 | Category: College compare and contrast essay examples

Download the latest Gender Inequality Index Data View the GII Frequently Asked Questions. Gender inequality remains a major barrier to human development.

Comments
  1. author
    User1487804441 17 Jan 2017 22:09

    Your School get State Funding based on the number of students which start School and end the School Year by attendance. Marginal Students are being coerced to stay in school so the graduation and attendance rates will be higher to get funding with regard to the "No Student Left Behind" program initiated about 6 years ago.

  2. author
    User1488289085 18 Jan 2017 01:59

    Until 1978 China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality as one of the key principles of societal organization. After embarking on economic reforms in the 1990s and early 2000s, gender inequality in Chinese labor markets increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social problem as market-oriented reforms unfolded in China. [1]

    Employment system reform was a major part of China''''''''''''''''s economic reforms following the Mao era. [12] During this era, China formed the “Tong Bao Tong Pei” employment system. This system created government-guaranteed employment under the planned system. [12] After the end of the Chinese Cultural Revolution , due to large scale unemployment, the Communist party and government phased out the guaranteed employment system and conducted reforms to both the employment system and the economy. [12]

    Not surprisingly, women are over-represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women’s employment, where the wages are low and the work is part-time, non-unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less than $11,000. This category also includes self-employment where women have median incomes that are only 59% that of men’s.

    One bright spot in terms of women’s equality is in the results found for women who work in unionized environments. Women make 82% of men’s incomes in such environments – even when comparing full time, full year employment. When assessing the impact of unionization, the study reveals that non-unionized environments create a wider gender gap – women make only 72% of men’s incomes in such environments.

    Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel''''s Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find).

    For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable. The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them.

    Christopher Lubienski ne travaille pas, ne conseille pas, ne possède pas de parts, ne reçoit pas de fonds d une organisation qui pourrait tirer profit de cet article, et n a déclaré aucune autre affiliation que son poste universitaire.

    Like many of the English-speaking market democracies, Australia and, perhaps to a lesser extent the US, like to think of themselves as merit-based societies in which everyone has a “fair go”. This idea led to the creation of school systems that guaranteed all children, no matter their origins, access to a publicly funded education. By creating educational and economic opportunity, this arguably helped the emergence of strong middle classes in each country.

    Gender inequality remains a major barrier to human development. Girls and women have made major strides since 1990, but they have not yet gained gender equity. The disadvantages facing women and girls are a major source of inequality. All too often, women and girls are discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market, etc.—with negative consequences for development of their capabilities and their freedom of choice.

    The GII sheds new light on the position of women in 159 countries; it yields insights in gender gaps in major areas of human development. The component indicators highlight areas in need of critical policy intervention and it stimulates proactive thinking and public policy to overcome systematic disadvantages of women.

  3. author
    yellowbear693 18 Jan 2017 09:33

    Why the inequalities? Start there. Schools get public money based on many factors..attendence, enrollment, etc...and people send their kids to a certain school for many reasons...break down the reasoning, then focus on "solving" the inequality at that root level..if for e.g. you want to increase enrollment find ways to do that..motivate kids, etc. This would fall into the social thinking category. "Think backwards"..you will figure it out. (college prof)

  4. author
    User1490668418 18 Jan 2017 04:16

    New York Film Academy looks into how women are portrayed on screen and employed behind the scenes to understand gender inequality in film.

  5. author
    orangegoose164 18 Jan 2017 01:09

    Until 1978 China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality as one of the key principles of societal organization. After embarking on economic reforms in the 1990s and early 2000s, gender inequality in Chinese labor markets increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social problem as market-oriented reforms unfolded in China. [1]

    Employment system reform was a major part of China''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s economic reforms following the Mao era. [12] During this era, China formed the “Tong Bao Tong Pei” employment system. This system created government-guaranteed employment under the planned system. [12] After the end of the Chinese Cultural Revolution , due to large scale unemployment, the Communist party and government phased out the guaranteed employment system and conducted reforms to both the employment system and the economy. [12]

    Not surprisingly, women are over-represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women’s employment, where the wages are low and the work is part-time, non-unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less than $11,000. This category also includes self-employment where women have median incomes that are only 59% that of men’s.

    One bright spot in terms of women’s equality is in the results found for women who work in unionized environments. Women make 82% of men’s incomes in such environments – even when comparing full time, full year employment. When assessing the impact of unionization, the study reveals that non-unionized environments create a wider gender gap – women make only 72% of men’s incomes in such environments.

    Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel''''''''s Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find).

    For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable. The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them.

    Christopher Lubienski ne travaille pas, ne conseille pas, ne possède pas de parts, ne reçoit pas de fonds d une organisation qui pourrait tirer profit de cet article, et n a déclaré aucune autre affiliation que son poste universitaire.

    Like many of the English-speaking market democracies, Australia and, perhaps to a lesser extent the US, like to think of themselves as merit-based societies in which everyone has a “fair go”. This idea led to the creation of school systems that guaranteed all children, no matter their origins, access to a publicly funded education. By creating educational and economic opportunity, this arguably helped the emergence of strong middle classes in each country.

    Gender inequality remains a major barrier to human development. Girls and women have made major strides since 1990, but they have not yet gained gender equity. The disadvantages facing women and girls are a major source of inequality. All too often, women and girls are discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market, etc.—with negative consequences for development of their capabilities and their freedom of choice.

    The GII sheds new light on the position of women in 159 countries; it yields insights in gender gaps in major areas of human development. The component indicators highlight areas in need of critical policy intervention and it stimulates proactive thinking and public policy to overcome systematic disadvantages of women.

    SEATTLE Despite massive progress, women’s rights remains a critical issue throughout the world, especially in regions like North Africa and the Middle East. Women are confronted with a systematic denial of rights where legal discrimination leaves them inferior to their male counterparts. Consequently, women globally lack a full realization of their fundamental human rights. Learning about this problem reveals that gender equality is central to sustainable progress. These are ten examples of gender inequality existing in the world today.


    Women are forbidden to drive in Saudi Arabia, despite numerous protests, and must rely on their fathers or husbands to get from place to place. In countries like Egypt and Bahrain, husbands have the right to stop their wives from leaving the country while other countries require written permission from a husband to travel.
    Sources:  Discovery, List Verse, Says
    Photo: NPR

  6. author
    User1490239753 18 Jan 2017 06:26

    Until 1978 China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality as one of the key principles of societal organization. After embarking on economic reforms in the 1990s and early 2000s, gender inequality in Chinese labor markets increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social problem as market-oriented reforms unfolded in China. [1]

    Employment system reform was a major part of China''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s economic reforms following the Mao era. [12] During this era, China formed the “Tong Bao Tong Pei” employment system. This system created government-guaranteed employment under the planned system. [12] After the end of the Chinese Cultural Revolution , due to large scale unemployment, the Communist party and government phased out the guaranteed employment system and conducted reforms to both the employment system and the economy. [12]

    Not surprisingly, women are over-represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women’s employment, where the wages are low and the work is part-time, non-unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less than $11,000. This category also includes self-employment where women have median incomes that are only 59% that of men’s.

    One bright spot in terms of women’s equality is in the results found for women who work in unionized environments. Women make 82% of men’s incomes in such environments – even when comparing full time, full year employment. When assessing the impact of unionization, the study reveals that non-unionized environments create a wider gender gap – women make only 72% of men’s incomes in such environments.

    Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find).

    For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable. The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them.

    Christopher Lubienski ne travaille pas, ne conseille pas, ne possède pas de parts, ne reçoit pas de fonds d une organisation qui pourrait tirer profit de cet article, et n a déclaré aucune autre affiliation que son poste universitaire.

    Like many of the English-speaking market democracies, Australia and, perhaps to a lesser extent the US, like to think of themselves as merit-based societies in which everyone has a “fair go”. This idea led to the creation of school systems that guaranteed all children, no matter their origins, access to a publicly funded education. By creating educational and economic opportunity, this arguably helped the emergence of strong middle classes in each country.

    Gender inequality remains a major barrier to human development. Girls and women have made major strides since 1990, but they have not yet gained gender equity. The disadvantages facing women and girls are a major source of inequality. All too often, women and girls are discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market, etc.—with negative consequences for development of their capabilities and their freedom of choice.

    The GII sheds new light on the position of women in 159 countries; it yields insights in gender gaps in major areas of human development. The component indicators highlight areas in need of critical policy intervention and it stimulates proactive thinking and public policy to overcome systematic disadvantages of women.

    SEATTLE Despite massive progress, women’s rights remains a critical issue throughout the world, especially in regions like North Africa and the Middle East. Women are confronted with a systematic denial of rights where legal discrimination leaves them inferior to their male counterparts. Consequently, women globally lack a full realization of their fundamental human rights. Learning about this problem reveals that gender equality is central to sustainable progress. These are ten examples of gender inequality existing in the world today.


    Women are forbidden to drive in Saudi Arabia, despite numerous protests, and must rely on their fathers or husbands to get from place to place. In countries like Egypt and Bahrain, husbands have the right to stop their wives from leaving the country while other countries require written permission from a husband to travel.
    Sources:  Discovery, List Verse, Says
    Photo: NPR


    “No nation, no society, no community can hold its head high and claim to be part of the civilized world if it condones the practice of discriminating against one half of humanity represented by women.”  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh

    The only concern here is gender inequality. The widespread practice of aborting female foetuses happens every day: the reality of gender inequality in India, origin of gender inequality and how to deactivate it.

  7. author
    crazymeercat179 18 Jan 2017 07:24

    Until 1978 China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality as one of the key principles of societal organization. After embarking on economic reforms in the 1990s and early 2000s, gender inequality in Chinese labor markets increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social problem as market-oriented reforms unfolded in China. [1]

    Employment system reform was a major part of China''''''''s economic reforms following the Mao era. [12] During this era, China formed the “Tong Bao Tong Pei” employment system. This system created government-guaranteed employment under the planned system. [12] After the end of the Chinese Cultural Revolution , due to large scale unemployment, the Communist party and government phased out the guaranteed employment system and conducted reforms to both the employment system and the economy. [12]

    Not surprisingly, women are over-represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women’s employment, where the wages are low and the work is part-time, non-unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less than $11,000. This category also includes self-employment where women have median incomes that are only 59% that of men’s.

    One bright spot in terms of women’s equality is in the results found for women who work in unionized environments. Women make 82% of men’s incomes in such environments – even when comparing full time, full year employment. When assessing the impact of unionization, the study reveals that non-unionized environments create a wider gender gap – women make only 72% of men’s incomes in such environments.

    Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel''s Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find).

    For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable. The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them.

    Christopher Lubienski ne travaille pas, ne conseille pas, ne possède pas de parts, ne reçoit pas de fonds d une organisation qui pourrait tirer profit de cet article, et n a déclaré aucune autre affiliation que son poste universitaire.

    Like many of the English-speaking market democracies, Australia and, perhaps to a lesser extent the US, like to think of themselves as merit-based societies in which everyone has a “fair go”. This idea led to the creation of school systems that guaranteed all children, no matter their origins, access to a publicly funded education. By creating educational and economic opportunity, this arguably helped the emergence of strong middle classes in each country.

  8. author
    User1488143657 18 Jan 2017 06:32

    Until 1978 China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality as one of the key principles of societal organization. After embarking on economic reforms in the 1990s and early 2000s, gender inequality in Chinese labor markets increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social problem as market-oriented reforms unfolded in China. [1]

    Employment system reform was a major part of China''s economic reforms following the Mao era. [12] During this era, China formed the “Tong Bao Tong Pei” employment system. This system created government-guaranteed employment under the planned system. [12] After the end of the Chinese Cultural Revolution , due to large scale unemployment, the Communist party and government phased out the guaranteed employment system and conducted reforms to both the employment system and the economy. [12]

    Not surprisingly, women are over-represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women’s employment, where the wages are low and the work is part-time, non-unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less than $11,000. This category also includes self-employment where women have median incomes that are only 59% that of men’s.

    One bright spot in terms of women’s equality is in the results found for women who work in unionized environments. Women make 82% of men’s incomes in such environments – even when comparing full time, full year employment. When assessing the impact of unionization, the study reveals that non-unionized environments create a wider gender gap – women make only 72% of men’s incomes in such environments.

  9. author
    User1490123272 18 Jan 2017 06:14

    Until 1978 China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality as one of the key principles of societal organization. After embarking on economic reforms in the 1990s and early 2000s, gender inequality in Chinese labor markets increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social problem as market-oriented reforms unfolded in China. [1]

    Employment system reform was a major part of China''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s economic reforms following the Mao era. [12] During this era, China formed the “Tong Bao Tong Pei” employment system. This system created government-guaranteed employment under the planned system. [12] After the end of the Chinese Cultural Revolution , due to large scale unemployment, the Communist party and government phased out the guaranteed employment system and conducted reforms to both the employment system and the economy. [12]

    Not surprisingly, women are over-represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women’s employment, where the wages are low and the work is part-time, non-unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less than $11,000. This category also includes self-employment where women have median incomes that are only 59% that of men’s.

    One bright spot in terms of women’s equality is in the results found for women who work in unionized environments. Women make 82% of men’s incomes in such environments – even when comparing full time, full year employment. When assessing the impact of unionization, the study reveals that non-unionized environments create a wider gender gap – women make only 72% of men’s incomes in such environments.

    Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel''''''''''''''''s Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find).

    For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable. The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them.

    Christopher Lubienski ne travaille pas, ne conseille pas, ne possède pas de parts, ne reçoit pas de fonds d une organisation qui pourrait tirer profit de cet article, et n a déclaré aucune autre affiliation que son poste universitaire.

    Like many of the English-speaking market democracies, Australia and, perhaps to a lesser extent the US, like to think of themselves as merit-based societies in which everyone has a “fair go”. This idea led to the creation of school systems that guaranteed all children, no matter their origins, access to a publicly funded education. By creating educational and economic opportunity, this arguably helped the emergence of strong middle classes in each country.

    Gender inequality remains a major barrier to human development. Girls and women have made major strides since 1990, but they have not yet gained gender equity. The disadvantages facing women and girls are a major source of inequality. All too often, women and girls are discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market, etc.—with negative consequences for development of their capabilities and their freedom of choice.

    The GII sheds new light on the position of women in 159 countries; it yields insights in gender gaps in major areas of human development. The component indicators highlight areas in need of critical policy intervention and it stimulates proactive thinking and public policy to overcome systematic disadvantages of women.

    SEATTLE Despite massive progress, women’s rights remains a critical issue throughout the world, especially in regions like North Africa and the Middle East. Women are confronted with a systematic denial of rights where legal discrimination leaves them inferior to their male counterparts. Consequently, women globally lack a full realization of their fundamental human rights. Learning about this problem reveals that gender equality is central to sustainable progress. These are ten examples of gender inequality existing in the world today.


    Women are forbidden to drive in Saudi Arabia, despite numerous protests, and must rely on their fathers or husbands to get from place to place. In countries like Egypt and Bahrain, husbands have the right to stop their wives from leaving the country while other countries require written permission from a husband to travel.
    Sources:  Discovery, List Verse, Says
    Photo: NPR


    “No nation, no society, no community can hold its head high and claim to be part of the civilized world if it condones the practice of discriminating against one half of humanity represented by women.”  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh

    The only concern here is gender inequality. The widespread practice of aborting female foetuses happens every day: the reality of gender inequality in India, origin of gender inequality and how to deactivate it.

  10. author
    User1491235534 18 Jan 2017 02:59

    Until 1978 China was a socialist planned economy that promoted gender equality as one of the key principles of societal organization. After embarking on economic reforms in the 1990s and early 2000s, gender inequality in Chinese labor markets increased. Gender inequality in the labor market emerged as a significant economic and social problem as market-oriented reforms unfolded in China. [1]

    Employment system reform was a major part of China''''s economic reforms following the Mao era. [12] During this era, China formed the “Tong Bao Tong Pei” employment system. This system created government-guaranteed employment under the planned system. [12] After the end of the Chinese Cultural Revolution , due to large scale unemployment, the Communist party and government phased out the guaranteed employment system and conducted reforms to both the employment system and the economy. [12]

    Not surprisingly, women are over-represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women’s employment, where the wages are low and the work is part-time, non-unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less than $11,000. This category also includes self-employment where women have median incomes that are only 59% that of men’s.

    One bright spot in terms of women’s equality is in the results found for women who work in unionized environments. Women make 82% of men’s incomes in such environments – even when comparing full time, full year employment. When assessing the impact of unionization, the study reveals that non-unionized environments create a wider gender gap – women make only 72% of men’s incomes in such environments.

    Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find).

    For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable. The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them.