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Why did the Roman Empire fall?

18 Jan 2017 21:24 | Author: User1491210947 | Category: Free sample essay child abuse

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome ) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities. The Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control; modern historians mention factors including the effectiveness and numbers of the army, the health and numbers of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the competence of the Emperor, the religious changes of the period, and the efficiency of the civil administration. Increasing pressure from " barbarians " outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. The reasons for the collapse are major subjects of the historiography of the ancient world and they inform much modern discourse on state failure. [1] [2]

Relevant dates include 117 CE, when the Empire was at its greatest territorial extent, and the accession of Diocletian in 284. Irreversible major territorial loss, however, began in 376 with a large-scale irruption of Goths and others. In 395, after winning two destructive civil wars, Theodosius I died, leaving a collapsing field army and the Empire, still plagued by Goths, divided between his two incapable sons. By 476 when Odoacer deposed the Emperor Romulus , the Western Roman Emperor wielded negligible military, political, or financial power and had no effective control over the scattered Western domains that could still be described as Roman. Invading "barbarians" had established their own power in most of the area of the Western Empire. While its legitimacy lasted for centuries longer and its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again.

Comments
  1. author
    User1490988731 18 Jan 2017 06:10

    In the early days, when Rome was still a kingdom the population was subdivided according to wealth and this subdivision was used not only for taxation purposes but also in order to make up the various military orders. The equestrian order "Eques", "Equites", "Equestri" or "Equestris ordinis" included the knights or cavalry. It was rather like a club to which you might belong according to your personal wealth. The Equestrian rank essentially meant you you had an estate of at least 400 Sestertia. In later years belonging to the equestrian rank gave the right to a horse at public expense whilst on military campaign. The Equestrians outnumbered the Senators and had a set of privileges although these were not quite as extensive as those of the Senatorial class. An Eques could in any case aspire to reaching the Senatorial order (by getting sufficiently rich). The privileges of the Equestrians were also used to distinguish oneself from those of lower social rank. Amongst the privileges of the Equestrians was the right to a "clavus" on the tunic (a purple stripe down the tunic but thinner than that of a Senator) and a distinctive gold ring. The Eques had right to particular seating at public games as well as having a degree of legal privilege.

  2. author
    User1488606648 18 Jan 2017 06:41

    Hey, we re here to help, not do your homework wholesale.

  3. author
    YURA 18 Jan 2017 07:44

    The Fall is not the only unifying concept for these events; the period described as Late Antiquity emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the political collapse.

    Since 1776, when Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , Decline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured. "From the eighteenth century onward," historian Glen Bowersock wrote, "we have been obsessed with the fall: it has been valued as an archetype for every perceived decline, and, hence, as a symbol for our own fears." [3]

    Gibbon offers an explanation for the fall of the Roman Empire , a task made difficult by a lack of comprehensive written sources, though he was not the only historian to attempt the task. [9]

    Gibbon saw the Praetorian Guard as the primary catalyst of the empire''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s initial decay and eventual collapse, a seed planted by Augustus when the empire was established. His writings cite repeated examples of the Praetorian Guard abusing their power with calamitous results, including numerous instances of imperial assassination and incessant demands for increased pay.

    If you turn on the captions, they is way off. It didn’t bother me, but please fix that for other people if they want captions.

    What is Square? Square roots work the opposite way of a square. For example : The square of the numbers 3 is 9, therefore the square root of number 9 is 3. Definition of Square Root The square root of a number is a value that can be multiplied by itself to give the original number. […]

    The invading army reached the outskirts of Rome, which had been left totally undefended. In 410 C.E., the Visigoths , led by Alaric , breached the walls of Rome and sacked the capital of the Roman Empire.

    The Visigoths looted, burned, and pillaged their way through the city, leaving a wake of destruction wherever they went. The plundering continued for three days. For the first time in nearly a millennium, the city of Rome was in the hands of someone other than the Romans. This was the first time that the city of Rome was sacked, but by no means the last.

  4. author
    Читай.ua 18 Jan 2017 02:59

    The Fall is not the only unifying concept for these events; the period described as Late Antiquity emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the political collapse.

    Since 1776, when Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , Decline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured. "From the eighteenth century onward," historian Glen Bowersock wrote, "we have been obsessed with the fall: it has been valued as an archetype for every perceived decline, and, hence, as a symbol for our own fears." [3]

    Gibbon offers an explanation for the fall of the Roman Empire , a task made difficult by a lack of comprehensive written sources, though he was not the only historian to attempt the task. [9]

    Gibbon saw the Praetorian Guard as the primary catalyst of the empire''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s initial decay and eventual collapse, a seed planted by Augustus when the empire was established. His writings cite repeated examples of the Praetorian Guard abusing their power with calamitous results, including numerous instances of imperial assassination and incessant demands for increased pay.

    If you turn on the captions, they is way off. It didn’t bother me, but please fix that for other people if they want captions.

    What is Square? Square roots work the opposite way of a square. For example : The square of the numbers 3 is 9, therefore the square root of number 9 is 3. Definition of Square Root The square root of a number is a value that can be multiplied by itself to give the original number. […]

  5. author
    purplecat729 18 Jan 2017 07:40

    The Fall is not the only unifying concept for these events; the period described as Late Antiquity emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the political collapse.

    Since 1776, when Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , Decline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured. "From the eighteenth century onward," historian Glen Bowersock wrote, "we have been obsessed with the fall: it has been valued as an archetype for every perceived decline, and, hence, as a symbol for our own fears." [3]

    Gibbon offers an explanation for the fall of the Roman Empire , a task made difficult by a lack of comprehensive written sources, though he was not the only historian to attempt the task. [9]

    Gibbon saw the Praetorian Guard as the primary catalyst of the empire''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s initial decay and eventual collapse, a seed planted by Augustus when the empire was established. His writings cite repeated examples of the Praetorian Guard abusing their power with calamitous results, including numerous instances of imperial assassination and incessant demands for increased pay.

    If you turn on the captions, they is way off. It didn’t bother me, but please fix that for other people if they want captions.

    What is Square? Square roots work the opposite way of a square. For example : The square of the numbers 3 is 9, therefore the square root of number 9 is 3. Definition of Square Root The square root of a number is a value that can be multiplied by itself to give the original number. […]

    The invading army reached the outskirts of Rome, which had been left totally undefended. In 410 C.E., the Visigoths , led by Alaric , breached the walls of Rome and sacked the capital of the Roman Empire.

    The Visigoths looted, burned, and pillaged their way through the city, leaving a wake of destruction wherever they went. The plundering continued for three days. For the first time in nearly a millennium, the city of Rome was in the hands of someone other than the Romans. This was the first time that the city of Rome was sacked, but by no means the last.

  6. author
    User1490027864 18 Jan 2017 08:18

    The Roman Empire did not use the feudal system. Early System War horses were expensive, and training in their use took years of practice. To support his cavalry soldiers, Martel gave them estates of land farmed by dependent laborers, which he took from the church. Such estates, called benefices, were given for the duration of the soldiers' service. The soldiers were called vassals (from a Gaelic word meaning servant). The vassals, however, being selected soldiers with whom the Carolingian rulers surrounded themselves, became models for the aristocrats who followed the court. With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, many powerful men strove to assemble their own bands of mounted vassals, giving them benefices in return for their services. Some of the weaker landowners then found themselves obliged to enter into vassalage and to concede their lands to the lordship of the more powerful, receiving them back as benefices. The greater lords were expected to protect their vassals, as the vassals were expected to serve their benefactors. Classical Feudalism These military relationships of the 8th and 9th centuries are sometimes described as Carolingian feudalism, but they lack some of the essential features of classical feudalism, which developed in and after the 10th century. It was only toward the year 1000 that the term fief began to be used instead of benefice, and the change of term reflected a change in the institution. Now the estate given a vassal was commonly understood to be hereditary, provided the vassal's heir was satisfactory to the lord, and provided he paid an inheritance tax called a relief. The vassal not only took the oath of fealty, which everyone owed to his lord, but also a special oath of homage to the feudal lord who invested him with a fief. Thus, feudalism was a political as well as military institution, one based upon a contract between two individuals, both of whom held rights in the fief. Reasons for the Feudal Pattern Warfare was endemic in the feudal period, but feudalism did not cause warfare; warfare caused feudalism. Nor was feudalism responsible for the collapse of the Carolingian Empire; rather, the failure of that state made feudalism necessary. The Carolingian Empire collapsed because it was based on the rule of one man, who did not have institutions sufficiently well developed to carry out his will. The empire's disappearance threatened Europe with anarchy: thousands of individual seigneurs ruling their people entirely independent of any suzerain authority. The bonds of feudalism reknit the local seigneuries into a loose unity, under which the seigneurs gave up only as much of their freedom as was essential to effective cooperation. Under the leadership of their feudal lords, the united vassals were able to fend off invaders and then to create feudal principalities of some size and complexity. When feudalism proved its worth on a local basis, kings and emperors adopted it to strengthen their monarchies.

  7. author
     ♀Ɗαzαι Oѕαмυ ┊太宰治 18 Jan 2017 08:58

    The Fall is not the only unifying concept for these events; the period described as Late Antiquity emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the political collapse.

    Since 1776, when Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , Decline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured. "From the eighteenth century onward," historian Glen Bowersock wrote, "we have been obsessed with the fall: it has been valued as an archetype for every perceived decline, and, hence, as a symbol for our own fears." [3]

    Gibbon offers an explanation for the fall of the Roman Empire , a task made difficult by a lack of comprehensive written sources, though he was not the only historian to attempt the task. [9]

    Gibbon saw the Praetorian Guard as the primary catalyst of the empire''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s initial decay and eventual collapse, a seed planted by Augustus when the empire was established. His writings cite repeated examples of the Praetorian Guard abusing their power with calamitous results, including numerous instances of imperial assassination and incessant demands for increased pay.

    If you turn on the captions, they is way off. It didn’t bother me, but please fix that for other people if they want captions.

    What is Square? Square roots work the opposite way of a square. For example : The square of the numbers 3 is 9, therefore the square root of number 9 is 3. Definition of Square Root The square root of a number is a value that can be multiplied by itself to give the original number. […]

    The invading army reached the outskirts of Rome, which had been left totally undefended. In 410 C.E., the Visigoths , led by Alaric , breached the walls of Rome and sacked the capital of the Roman Empire.

    The Visigoths looted, burned, and pillaged their way through the city, leaving a wake of destruction wherever they went. The plundering continued for three days. For the first time in nearly a millennium, the city of Rome was in the hands of someone other than the Romans. This was the first time that the city of Rome was sacked, but by no means the last.