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Which philosopher should I do my research essay on?

18 Jan 2017 21:24 | Author: blueswan990 | Category: Latin american revolution essay

René Descartes ( / ˈ d eɪ ˌ k ɑːr t / ; [6] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [7] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [8] [9] which are studied closely to this day. He spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes's influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system —allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two- or three-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations)—was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry , the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the scientific revolution.

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  1. author
    せたミン星人@(๑`н´๑)コミュ4見て 18 Jan 2017 07:23

    René Descartes ( / ˈ d eɪ ˌ k ɑːr t / ; [6] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [7] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [8] [9] which are studied closely to this day. He spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

    Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism , the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy , he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends —divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. [11] In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

  2. author
    whitelion824 18 Jan 2017 00:30

    Descartes method opened up incredible new lines of thought that future philosophers (Hegel, Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, etc.) would develop into fascinating theories about consciousness. His conclusions, however, were a little off, relying as they did on the power of a "non-deceiving God" to verify the authenticity of man s "clear and distinct impressions".

  3. author
    heavyelephant256 18 Jan 2017 00:28

    Abrief discussion of the life and works of Rene Descartes, with links to electronic texts and additional information by Garth Kemerling.

  4. author
    Виктор Сумарин 18 Jan 2017 05:02

    Descartes founded the cartesian plane, or what you know as the graph of the x-y axis. Originally before him, it was very difficult to map things because there was to no way to say where something lay, but with the graph you can say x=5 and y=2 and the reader will know where that is relative to the origin. More information can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descartes

  5. author
    User1489171208 18 Jan 2017 08:17

    French scientific philosopher who developed a theory known as the mechanical philosophy. This philosophy was highly influential until superseded by Newton s methodology, and maintained, for example, that the universe was a plenum in which no vacuum could exist. Descartes believed that matter had no inherent qualities, but was simply the "brute stuff" which occupied space. He divided reality into the res cognitas (consciousness, mind) and res extensa (matter, extension). In Traité de l homme (Treatise on Man) (1664) and Passions de l âme (Passions of the Soul) (1649), he expounded the view that an animal was an automaton lacking both sensation and self-awareness, and that only man was endowed with a soul. Descartes also generalized Harvey s mechanical interpretation of circulation, believing that the heart is an automatic mechanical pump. Descartes also believed that colors were caused by the rotation of "spheres" of light, using the tennis ball as a model of a spinning sphere. Unlike Newton, Descartes believed that white light was the pristine form. Descartes gave the first formulation of what is now known as Snell s law of refraction. Descartes believed that God created the universe as a perfect clockwork mechanism of vortical motion that functioned deterministically thereafter without intervention. Descartes said that the fundamental force of motion was mass times velocity (today known as momentum ), not the quantity which Leibniz called vis viva. Although this formulation was correct, Leibniz nonetheless maintained that the measure of a body s "force" was not given simply by the product of mass times velocity, but instead by the product of mass times velocity squared (which is proportional to what is now called kinetic energy ). Since the conservation of quantity of motion had become one of the pillars of Cartesian natural philosophy, Leibniz s suggestion that the fundamental quantity of motion was different from the one Descartes had proposed was rejected out of hand by all good Cartesians. A great controversy ensued between the German school of physical thought, which naturally supported Leibniz, and the French and English schools, whose Cartesians and Newtonians opposed him. Descartes was the first to make a graph, allowing a geometric interpretation of a mathematical function and giving his name to Cartesian coordinates. Descartes believed that a system of knowledge should start from first principles and proceed mathematically to a series of deductions, reducing physics to mathematics. In Discours de la Méthode (1637), he advocated the systematic doubting of knowledge, believing as Plato that sense perception and reason deceive us and that man cannot have real knowledge of nature. The only thing that he believed he could be certain of was that he was doubting, leading to his famous phrase "Cogito ergo sum," (I think, therefore I am). From this one phrase, he derived the rest of philosophy, including the existence of God.