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CourseNotes - African-American Civil Rights Movement

18 Jan 2017 21:24 | Author: User1488548904 | Category: Bodycare business plan

From the earliest years of European settlement in North America, whites enslaved and oppressed black people. Although the Civil War finally brought about.

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  1. author
    K L I M O V I C H . 18 Jan 2017 06:17

    Hi, read something here: AMERICANS CIVIL RIGHT MOVEMENT Rosa Parks has a special place in U.S. history as the mother of the civil rights movement. In 1955, the black woman refused to relinquish her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery Alabama, a violation of existing Jim Crow laws. This act of civil disobedience became the spark that ignited the masses during the 1950’s and 1960’s in protesting the racial inequalities. Although racism was and had been rampant in the South, the laws that called for racially segregated seating on public transportation were not enacted because of racial prejudice. Racial bias was centuries old but segregated seating on buses in the South was a relatively new phenomenon that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Most city transit systems were under private ownership at this time and the proprietors of these systems had no financial reason to impose segregation. The transit owners may themselves have been racists but they were in business to earn money and they certainly could not profit by alienating much of their transit patrons. The government, today widely viewed as a body that finds solutions to such social problems, was the entity that created this problem in the first place. Politics instigated the segregation of the races. The social pressures that motivated the political process are very different from motivations that drive the economic process. The Jim Crow laws that disenfranchised black voters ensured that only white opinions mattered in the political process. An overwhelming majority of the white voters was not needed to mandate racial segregation. If the minority of white voters wanted segregation while others didn’t have an opinion either way on the subject, this was adequate political clout because black opinion was of no significance in the political arena after they lost the ability to vote. The motivations of the politics conflicted with incentives of the economic system. Read more info here: http://www.oppapers.com/essays/American-Civil-Right-Movement/695630

  2. author
    bluerabbit652 18 Jan 2017 01:24

    Define brutality! Seriously. What is more brutal? Lynchings as a form of public entertainment or stripping an entire people of any sence of dignity & worth as human beings? I personally might define such actions as brutal but obviously a majority of Americans prior to 1970, an arbitrary date, clearly a majority of Americans felt it was quite normal to treat fellow Americans as if they were garbage. Peace

  3. author
    goldenfish472 18 Jan 2017 07:39

    The Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement (also referred to as the African-American Civil Rights Movement although the term " African American " was not widely used in the 1950s and 1960s) encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South.

    A wave of inner city riots in black communities from 1964 through 1970 undercut support from the white community. The emergence of the Black Power movement , which lasted from about 1966 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its nonviolence, and instead demanded political and economic self-sufficiency.

    Black and white liberal reformers struggled to ameliorate these oppressive practices, forming groups like the NAACP in 1909 and the National Urban League in 1911. South Carolina’s Septima Clark established Citizenship Schools for civil rights across the South, and North Carolina’s Ella Baker worked to improve conditions in the South. Their efforts remind us that civil rights activism has a considerable history predating the 1940s and that it featured largely unsung grassroots workers.

    The 1940s brought renewed efforts, however. In 1941, A. Philip Randolph threatened to stage an all-black March on Washington unless President Franklin D. Roosevelt acted to end racial discrimination in employment and racial segregation of the armed forces. Roosevelt agreed to a Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to investigate employment practices. Although the FEPC had no real power, Randolph’s highly visible advocacy of large-scale, direct-action protest was a sign of militant tactics to come.

    At the midpoint of the twentieth century, African Americans once again answered the call to transform the world. The social and economic ravages of Jim Crow era racism were all-encompassing and deep-rooted. Yet like a phoenix rising from the ashes of lynch mobs, debt peonage, residential and labor discrimination, and rape, the black freedom movement raised a collective call of No More !

    By the middle of the twentieth century, black people had long endured a physical and social landscape of white supremacy, embedded in policy, social codes, and both intimate and spectacular forms of racial restriction and violence. The social and political order of Jim Crow—the segregation of public facilities—meant schools, modes of transportation, rest rooms, and even gravesites were separate and unequal.

    When John F. Kennedy became president in 1961, African Americans throughout much of the South were denied the right to vote, barred from public facilities, subjected to insults and violence, and could not expect justice from the courts. In the North, black Americans also faced discrimination in housing, employment, education, and many other areas. But the civil rights movement had made important progress, and change was on the way.

    In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many southern political leaders claimed the desegregation decision violated the rights of states to manage their systems of public education, and they responded with defiance, legal challenges, delays, or token compliance. As a result, school desegregation proceeded very slowly. By the end of the 1950s, fewer than 10 percent of black children in the South were attending integrated schools.

  4. author
    undergrøund 17 Jan 2017 22:48

    The Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement (also referred to as the African-American Civil Rights Movement although the term " African American " was not widely used in the 1950s and 1960s) encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South.

    A wave of inner city riots in black communities from 1964 through 1970 undercut support from the white community. The emergence of the Black Power movement , which lasted from about 1966 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its nonviolence, and instead demanded political and economic self-sufficiency.

    Black and white liberal reformers struggled to ameliorate these oppressive practices, forming groups like the NAACP in 1909 and the National Urban League in 1911. South Carolina’s Septima Clark established Citizenship Schools for civil rights across the South, and North Carolina’s Ella Baker worked to improve conditions in the South. Their efforts remind us that civil rights activism has a considerable history predating the 1940s and that it featured largely unsung grassroots workers.

    The 1940s brought renewed efforts, however. In 1941, A. Philip Randolph threatened to stage an all-black March on Washington unless President Franklin D. Roosevelt acted to end racial discrimination in employment and racial segregation of the armed forces. Roosevelt agreed to a Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to investigate employment practices. Although the FEPC had no real power, Randolph’s highly visible advocacy of large-scale, direct-action protest was a sign of militant tactics to come.

    At the midpoint of the twentieth century, African Americans once again answered the call to transform the world. The social and economic ravages of Jim Crow era racism were all-encompassing and deep-rooted. Yet like a phoenix rising from the ashes of lynch mobs, debt peonage, residential and labor discrimination, and rape, the black freedom movement raised a collective call of No More !

    By the middle of the twentieth century, black people had long endured a physical and social landscape of white supremacy, embedded in policy, social codes, and both intimate and spectacular forms of racial restriction and violence. The social and political order of Jim Crow—the segregation of public facilities—meant schools, modes of transportation, rest rooms, and even gravesites were separate and unequal.